Ajmal holds a BA in English Language and Literature from Kabul University and an MA in Political Science from Ball State University. He is currently pursuing his PhD at the University of Toronto majoring in international relations and comparative politics. His research focuses on third-party interventions in multi-ethnic societies and their consequences for ethnic politics/conflict and state-building in those societies. His main case is Afghanistan post-2001, however, he also examines developments in Chad and Iraq. He is the recipient of the Ontario Graduate Scholarship (2017/18) and was wait-listed for a SSHRC doctoral award (2017/18). Ajmal provided research assistance to my Jihad and Co. book project, mainly focusing on the Afghan case and the cross-border trade networks there. He also provided research assistance in the jihadist norm evolution project. Ajmal is bilingual by birth (Dari and Pashtu) and has an intermediate level proficiency in Urdu.